Installing Red Hat Linux 6.0 and Windows 95 on a Toshiba 220 CDS
Note: these are written for the experienced Windows and Linux user;
I'm leaving out some details (e.g. I don't explain how to make directories,
I don't completely name all programs I tell you to run, and
I don't remind you which services to start up in Red Hat). Caveat lector.
- Find the "Certificate of Authenticity" on the Windows 95 manual
that came with the computer (needed to reinstall Windows).
- Find the "Toshiba Companion Floppy" that came with the computer
(might be handy in case you need to access the CD-ROM in real mode).
- Find the "Toshiba Drivers Disc" CD that came with the computer,
and the Xircom driver disks that came with the combo Ethernet/Modem card
I got as an addon when I bought the machine (needed to reinstall drivers).
- Buy 30 blank floppies. Use the utility (the one that
bugs you periodically) to finally make a Windows 95 Startup disk
and a set of Windows 95 Setup disks (29 disks!) (needed to reinstall Windows).
- Back up important user data to floppy. We are about to DELETE THE ENTIRE CONTENTS OF THE HARD DRIVE.
- Boot with the Win95 startup disk.
Run FDISK. Don't enable Large Disk Support - it might be safer to live
with FAT16, and you don't need FAT32 for the small Windows parition you're
going to create.
Repartition the hard drive using fdisk in the following order:
- 256 MB primary DOS partition (for C:)
- 20 MB seconary DOS partition (for /boot)
- 980 MB (or big enough to leave just 120 MB left) seconary DOS partition (for /)
- 120 MB seconary DOS partition (for swap)
- Reboot from Win95 reinstall floppy. Install Windows 95, using the
minimum install, but making sure important things like dialup networking
and wordpad are included. This takes two hours, as you have to swap thirty
floppies in and out. It formats all four partitions on the drive,
even though only the first one (the 256 MB partition) will be used by Windows.
- Reboot into Win95.
- (Optional) Make a directory C:\win95. Copy the cab files from the
29 Windows setup floppies into it. This will make Windows never prompt
you to insert a floppy again, at the cost of 40 MB of disk space.
You can do this on demand - i.e. when Windows prompts you for a setup
floppy, you can copy it into C:\win95 first, then tell Windows to look there.
Insert the Toshiba Companion CD-ROM. Look in the "chips", "sound",
and "cardworks" sections for README files, and follow the instructions
there to install the right screen, sound, and PCMCIA drivers
(installing cardworks will fail with a message telling you how to tell
Windows to install its own PCMCIA support. Once you've done that, try
installing Cardworks again.)
- If you have a Xircom card, install the Xircom drivers by running the
setup program on Xircom floppy #1. (I still don't have them quite working.)
- Make sure your Windows setup is working properly. If you need to
reinstall Windows, it might be good to do it before installing Linux.
- Reboot the computer, and press ESC during the memory check
(or run TSETUP.EXE from the Toshiba Companion Floppy). This will bring
up the BIOS setup screen. Switch the boot priority to FD-CD-HD, to enable
booting from CD-ROM.
- Insert the Red Hat 6 disc and reboot.
- Install Red Hat 6 as normal from the local CD-ROM drive.
During install, you won't need to repartition the disk, but
you will have to use Linux's fdisk to change the partition types on the
/, /boot, and swap partitions you made earlier with the DOS fdisk.
My hard drive died after four years. It started making Bad, Bad Noises
and wouldn't boot. I thought I didn't care (since I have a faster
laptop), but it turns out that going to coffeehouses with Liz
is a lot more likely if we can both work while we're there, so
I finally decided to fix the darn thing.
- When setting up X, pick screen type "LCD panel 800x600",
graphics card 65554 or server type SVGA, and screen resolution 8 bit, 640x480.
- Don't enable graphical login yet - you may need to futz with XF86Config
- Set up XF86Config as follows:
cp XF86Config XF86Config.bak
Fix the mode lines and options in XF86Config to fit the CT65554 graphics
chipset and LCD screen; settings that seem to work for me are
Modeline "640x480" 25.00 640 648 672 792 480 493 497 535
Modeline "800x600" 34.00 800 816 848 904 600 609 614 637
These options work for many similar Toshiba laptops, e.g. the Toshiba Satellite Pro 425cds.
Here's my complete /etc/X11/XF86Config.
You may want to peek at my tips on accessing
Windows fonts from Linux.
There is no doc on this anywhere on the net as far as I can see,
probably because it's pretty easy. To remove the hard drive, you
only need to remove the hard drive cover and slide out the drive tray.
The hard drive cover is a 14mm x 77mm x 250mm L-shaped piece of plastic
that wraps around from the bottom of the laptop to the front.
If the computer is sitting normally in front of you,
you can see the cover easily; it's below the display latch,
to the right of the microphone, to the left of the drive activity lights.
It is held in place by one philips-head screw and a tab.
After removing the screw, gently flex the cover forward to free the
cover from the tab; the easiest way to do this is to slide
your thumbnail into the gap betwen the case and the cover,
just below the display latch, and slide your thumbnail to the left
while prying the cover forward to lift its top edge away from the case.
The cover should pop off willingly when your thumb gets past the
middle of the cover.
The stock hard drive mine came with was type HDD2714 (aka MK1403MAV).
has a page about it, as does
It's a 2.5 inch slimline (12.5mm thick) EIDE4 drive.
Turns out the best place to get these appears to be
They had 14 in stock, for a reasonable price, and delivered a working drive
(without mfr's warranty, oh well) quickly.
After getting the new drive in, I installed a minimal version of Red Hat 8,
with no GTK or the like. It went quite slowly, so I left for dinner after
getting it started. After waiting an hour for me to insert disc 2, my laptop shut off.
When I pressed the power button, to my great suprise, it resumed where it left off!
Only problem was, the CD latch was stuck open, and the CD wouldn't mount.
If I held the door closed, I could hear the drive power up, but the
installer wasn't progressing. Reaching into my bag of tricks, I hit
alt-F2 to get another virtual console, did "mount" to see where the CD
was mounted, did "umount" on it, and tried to mount it again. Aaagh -
the *device* was gone (it magically disappeared?). Doing a quick
"ls -l /dev/hdc" on another Red Hat 8 box, I saw it was major device 22,
so I tried
# mknod hdc b 22 0
# mount hdc /source/cdrom -t iso9660
while holding the door shut. Lo and behold, the install finished...
... but the very last step of the install, X setup, crashed while starting X.
In case anyone from Red Hat is reading, here's the stack dump:
/usr/bin/anaconda line 694 in ?
/usr/lib/anaconda/text.py line 425, in run
/usr/lib/anaconda/textw/xconfig_text.py, line 259, in call
Fortunately, the machine was still bootable.
But since I didn't install GTK,
Red Hat's X configuration tools did not install; all that was left was
the icky /usr/X11R6/xf86config. (This is the second Red Hat 8 install where
I've had to use that, out of six installs!)
Ugly though it may be, xf86config did the trick this time. I picked 2MB
video RAM, Chips and Technologies 65554 graphics chip, 16 bits/pixel, and 800x600.
After it finished, I edited /etc/X11R6/XF86Config to uncomment the
line, and ran 'startx'.
The only window manager installed was the fallback twm, but that was (just barely)
good enough for me.
[Not] Getting the Xircom CEM33 Credit Card Ethernet Modem working under RH8
Red Hat 8 didn't seem to recognize my PCMCIA system unless I went into
BIOS and changed it to Cardbus mode. (Red Hat 6 was happy with it in
its default 'PCIC' mode, I think.) I also had to edit
/etc/sysconfig/pcmcia, change "PCMCIA=no" to "PCMCIA=yes",
and add the line "PCIC=yenta_socket". After I rebooted (a few times?),
I got the usual PCMCIA beeps.
I then ran setup, and told it to use DHCP. After that, doing
/etc/init.d/network restart actually started trying to do eth0 stuff.
It didn't do much, as it didn't know what driver to use.
I then tried adding
alias eth0 xircom_pc
to /etc/modules.conf and rebooting. No joy with that, or with the
other two Xircom drivers in /lib/modules/.../pcmcia. I'm a bit stuck now,
suggestions welcome. (It worked in earlier red hats, why not in 8?)
After the Red Hat 8 problems, I did a clean install of Red Hat 6.2.
To get the Xircom card working, I had to go back to BIOS and set PCIC mode (as opposed to cardbus mode),
otherwise the system thought it was a memory card.
Copyright 1999-2003 Dan Kegel
Last updated 25 May 2003
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